Introduction to Border Militarization

Photo by Raquel Mogollón

 

 Preface

With this introduction we will touch on the major points to be covered in the Border Militarization Study Guide.  Isabel Garcia, co-founder of the Tucson-based  Derechos Humanos  Coalition provides an essential background in the history of free trade and militarization and their impacts on the US/Mexico border. Will Wickham does an excellent job presenting an overview of the subjects covered in this guide. Leilani Clark is a young  poet and activist whose poem, To Honor Lives Stolen, provides a poignant introduction to the tragic list that follows:  a listing of the undocumented persons whose remains were found last year on the Arizona side of the Sonoran Desert.  We ask that students not rush through these, but consider each one and the conditions under which they died.  It is their muted testimony that most indicts the terrible legacy of neoliberalism with its free trade agreements and border militarization.   The War in Arizona by James Jordan, also based in Tucson, is a few years old, written shortly after the shooting of Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, while the city and nation were trying to figure out the significance of this event.  It gives some idea of just how the US/Mexico border really has converted into a war zone.  We also want to call attention to the photographs not only for this lesson, but throughout the Study Guide.  We are thankful to be working with some of the best photojournalists-both professional and amateur-who are chronicling the struggles of the undocumented.  It is said that “a picture is worth a thousand words”.  But maybe it is best not to compare the value of these photographs to words at all. Perhaps it is what is communicated and contemplated in silence via direct, visceral apprehension that is the underlying source of the power of these images.

 

NOTE:  Be sure and scroll down to the very end to look at the Call to Action, Discussion and Group Exercises, Online Forum, and Further Study sections.

 

Isabel Garcia on the History and Impact of Free Trade and Militarization of the Border

Interview and Video by:  Chelli Stanley and Will Wickham. 

 

Isabel Garcia is a co-founder of both the Derechos Humanos Coalition and No More Deaths, Director of the Pima County (AZ) Legal Defenders office and recipient of Mexico’s National Human Rights Award. In this video, she talks about the history of border militarization and the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

 

Border Militarization-An Introduction

by Will Wickham, Alliance for Global Justice intern via the Earlham Border Studies Program

The line separating the two nations of México and the United States runs nearly two thousand miles. In its most contemporary incarnation, it spans four US states, six Mexican States, and divides several Indian reservations and metropolitan areas. But it is only a line; its single dimension can have no place other than the strictly conceptual in a three dimensional world. The true border is what humans create upon the concept; it is the fence, the policies, the restriction of movements of goods and people. And so, the “border” becomes expansive: it is an entire region in both Mexico and the United States, it is the cities, towns and countryside. The presence of the border is felt wherever border policies and legislation structure our lives.  Read more…

 

To Honor Lives Stolen

by Leilani Clark

Funeral For a Migrant Mother (Tucson, 2005)

 To do the work we do is to honor those lives.
To educate and inform,
to articulate and paint a picture for you
All that goes on in this state,
In these deserts.
To do the work we do is to honor those lives lost in them.
Josseline Janiletha Hernandez Quintero
Milka Lopez-Herrera

Lourdes Cruz Morales
Desconocido
Desconocida- Unknown name, unknown age
-this woman.
Maybe she, a young twenty-two year old, went through what I am living through

and she came up north to run away and start all over again.
To break free from the bounds suffocating her body brought by sexual violence.
But now there she lies.

Her once laughing body
now so cold.
Placed inside a cold metal freezer of the same consistency

of the cold metal barrier you need around your heart to work at the Pima Medical Examiner’s Office.
There she lies,

pieces of her beautiful body providing the vivid sensory of smell to visitors coming from all over the country to get a firsthand glimpse of what goes on in Arizona.
The one state where to learn the scent of a sun-dried corpse is to learn the reality of failed border policies.
This all dawns on me while I write this, dressed in black- about to go to my auntie’s funeral.

All the weight of the world in the very fact a funeral is a golden privilege.

Photo by David Bacon dbacon.igc.org

 The Human Cost of Border Militarization

The following list is taken from the website of the Coalicion de Derechos Humanos and lists the individual border crossers whose remains were recovered from the Arizona borderlands in 2012. To read a full report, including a yearly list of the deceased starting in 2001,  click here to learn more about the Arizona Recovered Remains Project.

This Year’s Deaths

Coalición de Derechos Humanos counts the number of bodies recovered in Arizona for the fiscal year, which begins October 1st and ends September 30th of every year. This will be so that we can compare the numbers put out by the government officials with those that we gather, in collaboration with the Consular offices and county medical examiners.

The following are the human remains recovered from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2012

#

Name

Sex

Age

Country

Date Discovered

Location Discovered

Cause of Death

1

Saturnino Silva Lopez

M

40

Unknown

10/1/2011

N 31 53.322   W 111 48.103

Acute coronary thrombus

2

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

10/6/2011

N 32 78.601   W 111 98.936

Undetermined- skeletal remains

3

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

10/8/2011

N 32 37.379   W 112 48.9317

Undetermined- partial skeletal remains

4

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

10/10/2011

N 31 35.907   W 111 41.923

Undetermined- skeletal remains

5

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

10/12/2011

N 32 46.628   W 112 10.570

Undetermined- skeletal remains

6

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

10/12/2011

5 miles Northeast of South Mountain

Undetermined- skeletal remains

7

Juan Angel Espinoza Rivera

M

29

Unknown

10/14/2011

N 32 49.51   W 111 02.134

Probable hyperthermia

8

Jose Jesus Orduña Ruiz

M

26

Unknown

10/15/2011

N 31 35.500   W 110 91.106

Hyperthermia

9

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

10/17/2011

N 31 46.025   W 112 12.090

Undetermined- skeletal remains

10

Saul Octavio Pro Flores

M

20

Unknown

10/17/2011

N 32 20.50   W 112 98.98

Undetermined- mummified, partially skeletonized remains

11

Unknown

 M

Unk

Unknown

10/24/2011

N 32 12.161   W 112 49.326

Undetermined- skeletal remains

12

Unknown

 M

Unk

Unknown

10/24/2011

N 32 10.765   W 112 38.743

Undetermined- skeletal remains

13

Francisco Arreola Rueda

M

30

Unknown

10/24/2011

N 32 00.253   W 112 17.647

Undetermined- skeletal remains

14

Ana Ruth Avalos Guillen

F

28

El Salvador

10/25/2011

N 31 54.412   W 112 12.275

Undetermined- skeletal remains

15

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

10/28/2011

N 32 36.561   W 111 50.9149

Undetermined- skeletal remains

16

Juan Arteaga Reynosa

M

33

México

11/2/2011

N 31 43.44   W 111 59.025

Probable hyperthermia

17

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

11/2/2011

Parker Canyon (Cochise County)

Exposure

18

Jetro Natanael Calix Barrientos

M

23

Unknown

11/4/2011

N 31 55.115   W 112 16.129

Undetermined

19

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

11/5/2011

N 32 25.964   W 111 32.878

Probable hyperthermia

20

Miguel Angel Gonzalez Diaz

M

36

México

11/7/2011

N 31 53.823   W 111 54.690

Undetermined- skeletal remains

21

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

11/8/2011

N 31 36.031   W 111 09.365

Undetermined- skeletal remains

22

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

11/10/2011

N 32 46.628   W 111 59.054

Undetermined- partial skeletal remains

23

Priciliano Alonso Barcena

M

Unk

México

11/11/2011

N 32 30.537   W 111 28.357

Undetermined- partial skeletal remains

24

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

11/11/2011

N 32 32.290   W 111 33.106

Undetermined- partial skeletal remains

25

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

11/15/2011

N 31.30.375   W 111 07.766

Undetermined- skeletal remains

26

Jose Luis Hernandez Cruz

M

39

México

11/16/2011

N 32 01.963   W 111 53.978

Undetermined- skeletal remains

27

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

11/18/2011

N 32 23.055   W 112 46.555

Undetermined- skeletal remains

28

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

11/19/2011

N 32 17.460   W 111 20.618

Undetermined due to skeletal remains

29

Eliezer Labrador Rios

M

25

Unknown

11/21/2011

N 32 38.912   W 111 07.850

Gunshot wound of head

30

Feliciano Sanchez Rios

M

42

Unknown

11/21/2011

N 32 38.912   W 111 07.850

Multiple gunshot wounds

31

Cristian Abel Sanchez Velazquez

M

20

Unknown

11/21/2011

N 32 38.895   W 111 07.882

Multiple gunshot wounds

32

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

11/22/2011

N 32 00.772   W 112 04.112

Undetermined- skeletal remains

33

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

11/22/2011

Douglas, AZ (Cochise County)

Pending

34

Roberto Escalera Hernandez

M

Unk

México

11/27/2011

N 31 85.49   W 111 54.6517

Undetermined- skeletal remains

35

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

12/1/2011

N 32 03.772   W 113 00.206 (Why, AZ)

Undetermined- skeletal remains

36

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

12/5/2011

N 32 00.566   W 111 10.614

Undetermined- skeletal remains

37

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

12/6/2011

N 31 44.741   W 111 59.254

Undetermined- skeletal remains

38

Byron Neftali Sosa Orellana

M

28

Guatemala

12/6/2011

N 32 06.015   W 112 03.816

Gunshot wound of chest

39

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

12/8/2011

I-8 MP 159  1/4 mile south of I-8

Undetermined- skeletal remains

40

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

12/10/2011

South I-8 West of Stanfield

Undetermined- skeletal remains

41

Aquilino Almaraz Almaraz

M

31

México

12/19/2011

Southwest of Vamori Village

Undetermined- skeletal remains

42

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

12/22/2011

N 31 13.13   W 111 14.39 (Green Valley)

Undetermined- partial skeletal remains

43

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

12/29/2011

5 miles south of Little Tucson on Power Line Road

Undetermined- skeletal remains

44

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

12/29/2011

N 32 34.609   W 111 45.144

Undetermined- skeletal remains

45

Fernando Vasquez-Castañeda

M

29

México

12/30/2011

N 32 09.353   W 111 31.162

Undetermined- skeletal remains

46

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

1/3/2012

N 31 40.011   W 111 58.052

Undetermined- skeletal remains

47

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

1/5/2012

N 32 21.632   W 111 37.463

Undetermined- skeletal remains

48

Jose Mario Ocampo Rivera

M

41

Unknown

1/9/2012

N 32 36.156   W 111 54.703

Exposure to the elements

49

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

1/10/2012

N 32 23.703   W 111 27.641

Undetermined- skeletal remains

50

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

1/10/2012

N 31 44.141   W 111 58.823

Undetermined- skeletal remains

51

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

1/11/2012

N 31 44.509   W 111 58.621

Undetermined- skeletal remains

52

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

1/12/2012

N 31 44.172   W 111 56.006

Undetermined- skeletal remains

53

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

1/15/2012

N 32 01.518   W 113 04.475

Undetermined- skeletal remains

54

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

1/15/2012

N 32 06.319   W 112 31.930

Undetermined- skeletal remains

55

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

1/21/2012

1/2 mile west of Onion Stand Cemetery

Undetermined- skeletal remains

56

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

1/26/2012

N 31 39.487   W 40.639

Probable drowning

57

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

1/27/2012

Bisbee (Cochise County)

Pending

58

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

1/28/2012

Southwest of West Aries and South

Undetermined- partial skeletal remains

59

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

2/1/2012

Apache (Cochise County)

Pending

60

Cornelio Tzanahua Salas

M

Unk

Unknown

2/3/2012

N 32 45.487  W 112 04.289

Undetermined

61

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

2/3/12

N 32 10.356   W 112 43.679

Undetermined due to skeletal remains

62

Martin Alvarez Ascencio

M

37

México

2/10/2012

N 32 59.972   W 111 90.432

Undetermined- skeletal remains

63

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

2/10/2012

N 31 57.531   W 111 26.605

Undetermined- skeletal remains

64

Sebastian Vasquez Vasquez

M

Unk

Guatemala

2/11/2012

N 32 47.348   W 111 50.033

Probable drowning

65

Maria Martha Luna Sanchez

F

Unk

Unknown

2/13/2012

Los Reales Road  and Santa Clara Avenue

Peritonitis

66

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

2/13/2012

N 31 49.758   W 112 15.097

Undetermined- skeletal remains

67

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

2/13/2012

N 31 49.758   W 112 15.097

Undetermined- skeletal remains

68

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

2/15/2012

Federal Route 21, Mile post 28

Undetermined

69

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

2/18/2012

N 31 38.772   W 111 08.900

Undetermined- skeletal remains

70

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

2/21/2012

N 31 45.118   W 112 10.759

Undetermined- skeletal remains

71

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

2/26/2012

N 32 05.564   W 111 28.576

Undetermined- skeletal remains

72

Juan Cruz Garcia

M

44

México

2/27/2012

0.2 miles west of Mariposa port of entry

Blunt force injuries of head

73

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

3/3/2012

N 31 27.000   W 111 12.495

Undetermined- skeletal remains

74

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

3/16/2012

South of MP 85 on SR 86

Undetermined- skeletal remains

75

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

3/17/2012

N 31 72.368   W 111 87.800

Undetermined

76

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

3/20/2012

N 31 45.328   W 112 11.578

Undetermined- skeletal remains

77

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

3/24/2012

N 31 34.717   W 110 36.843

Undetermined

78

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

3/24/2012

N 31 40.473   W 111 54.651

Undetermined

79

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

3/27/2012

5 miles north east of Topawa

Undetermined- skeletal remains

80

Jose Aquilino Ramirez Flores

M

47

Unknown

3/28/2012

N 32 79.853   W 112 18.549

Undetermined due to skeletal remains

81

Salvador Leon Vicente

M

43

Unknown

3/28/2012

3 miles south of State Route 289

Probable dehydration

82

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

4/1/2012

Douglas, AZ (Cochise County)

Pending

83

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

4/1/2012

Pearce, AZ (Cochise County)

Pending

84

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

4/4/2012

N 32 31.442   W 111 33.143

Undetermined due to skeletal remains

85

Gerardo Perez Ruiz

M

39

México

4/8/2012

N 32 46.365   W 111 72.06

Gunshot wound of head

86

Juan Lorenzo Lopez

M

40

Guatemala

4/8/2012

N 32 46.365   W 111 72.06

Gunshot wound of back

87

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

4/9/2012

N 31 57.502   W 112 52.935

Undetermined- partial skeletal remains

88

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

4/9/2012

N 32 07.578   W 111 41.837

Undetermined- partial skeletal remains

89

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

4/14/2012

N 31 26.140   W 110 50.426

Undetermined- skeletal remains

90

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

4/16/2012

N 31 58.854   W 113 05.121

Undetermined- skeletal remains

91

Joaquin Rodriguez Perez

M

47

México

4/22/2012

N 31 35.0760   W 111 40.690

            Hyperthermia

92

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

4/24/2012

N 32 36.100   W 112 10.703

Undetermined- skeletal remains

93

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

4/26/2012

N 31 43.105   W 111 36.544

Undetermined- skeletal remains

94

Ildefonso Martinez Sanchez

M

39

México

4/27/2012

Federal Route 1, 4 miles west of Pile Post 6.5

Probable hyperthermia

95

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

4/28/2012

N 31 67.0917   W 111 38.7717

Unknown

96

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

5/1/2012

N 32 00.723   W 112 09.772

Undetermined due to skeletal remains

97

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

5/2/2012

Unknown

Undetermined- skeletal remains

98

Teodoro Avidail Gonzalez Mateo

M

28

Unknown

5/2/2012

South Florence Street and West 3rd Avenue

Cranio-cerebral injuries

99

Enrique Manuel Tomas

M

31

Unknown

5/2/2012

South Florence Street and West 3rd Avenue

Cranio-cerebral injuries

100

Brandon Enrique Jocol Gonon

M

23

Unknown

5/2/2012

South Florence Street and West 3rd Avenue

Multiple blunt force injuries

101

Rogelio Pomaquiza Sumba

M

35

Unknown

5/11/2012

7.4 miles NW of SR 86, milepost 50

Undetermined (mummified, decomposed remains)

102

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

5/12/2012

N 31 37.003   W 111 02.038

Undetermined due to postmortem decomposition

103

Antonio Martinez Jimenez

M

29

Unknown

5/14/2012

N 31 42.664   W 111 52.985

Probable hyperthermia

104

Mariana Xochitl Chaverri Piña

F

33

Unknown

5/17/2012

N 31 83.362   W 111 40.978

Undetermined

105

Cecilio Martinez Gallegos

M

32

México

5/17/2012

N 31 45.865   W 112 04.91.5915

Probable hyperthermia

106

Manuel Guillermo Coronado Echeverria

M

41

Unknown

5/21/2012

N 31 90.143   W 112 87.4416

Probable hyperthermia

107

Jesus Hector Hernandez Morales

M

Unk

Unknown

5/23/2012

N 32 01.311   W 112 66.286

Probable hyperthermia

108

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

5/25/2012

N 31 40.503   W 111 45.992

Undetermined- mummified and skeletal remains

109

Noe Govea Gutierrez

M

37

Unknown

5/25/2012

N 31 42.111   W 111 56.358

Probable hyperthermia

110

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

5/29/2012

N 31 46.449   W 111 49.693

Undetermined (skeletal remains)

111

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

5/31/2012

N 32 09.122   W 111 32.280

Undetermined

112

Omar Fabian-Silva

M

26

Unknown

6/1/2012

N 31 34.078   W 111 40.110

Environmental heat exposure

113

Claudia Yadira Mota Ruiz

F

32

México

6/1/2012

N 32 13.406   W 111 91.437 Nolia

Hyperthermia

114

Justina Juarez Velasco

F

17

México

6/2/2012

N 32 10.035   W 112 59.801

Undetermined (mummified, partially skeletonized remains)

115

Domitila Juarez Velasco

F

30

México

6/2/2012

N 32 10.035   W 112 59.801

Undetermined (mummified, partially skelotonized remains)

116

Roque Juarez Montes

M

30

México

6/2/2012

N 44.035   W 111 04.441

Probable hyperthermia

117

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

6/2/2012

N 32 01.861   W 112 57.148

Probable hyperthermia

118

Luis Barrera Estrada

M

36

México

6/6/2012

N 31 33.173   W 111 38.616

Pending

119

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

6/11/2012

Unknown

Undetermined due to skeletal remains

120

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

6/11/2012

N 32 26.378   W 111 36.832

Undetermined

121

Fernando Gonzalez-Dominguez

M

35

Unknown

6/12/2012

N 31 50.828  W 111 51.785

Undetermined due to postmortem decomposition

122

Luis Genaro Cordova-Damian

M

25

Unknown

6/16/2012

N 31 36.663   W 111 40.403

            Undetermined due to postmortem decomposition

123

Rony Villatoro-Villatoro

M

28

Guatemala

6/19/2012

N 31 15.680   W 111 54.284

Probable hyperthermia

124

Lucio Dominguez Figueroa

M

31

Unknown

6/20/2012

N 31 45.566   W 111 45.255

Undetermined due to postmortem decomposition

125

Rigoberto Angel Santos Mata

M

43

México

6/21/2012

6 miles east of State Route 286, MP 0.5

Probable hyperthermia

126

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

6/21/2012

N 32 01.589   W 112 07.922

Probable hyperthermia

127

Heraclio Garcia Bringas

M

25

Unknown

6/23/2012

N 31 92.7983   W 112 88.1683

Probable hyperthermia

128

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

6/23/2012

N 32 15.812   W 111 38.746

Probable hyperthermia

129

Pablo Cesar Hernandez Perez

M

29

Guatemala

6/23/2012

N 31 50.970   W 111 54.378

Probable hyperthermia

130

Juan Carlos Bravo Dominguez

M

30

Unknown

6/24/2012

N 32 01.558   W 112 09.808

Probable hyperthermia

131

Arturo Barrera Cuevas

M

41

Unknown

6/27/2012

3.5 miles west of State Route 1, milepost 15

Probable hyperthermia

132

Rosa Maria Palestino Mendez

F

29

México

7/1/2012

N 31 31.929   W 111 36.269

Undetermined (mummified, partially skeletonized remains)

133

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

7/1/2012

N 32 13.129   W 112 41.166

Undetermined due to postmortem decomposition

134

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

7/1/2012

N 32 00.612   W 112 24.535

Undetermined due to postmortem decomposition

135

Juan Ramon Alencaster Ambrocio

M

25

México

7/1/2012

N 32 05.100   W 112 34.165

            Undetermined (partial skeletal remains)

136

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

7/1/2012

N 31 43.276   W 112 05.039

            Undetermined (partial skeletal remains)

137

Carmita Marisela Zhagui Pulla

F

30

Ecuador

7/2/2012

N 31 83.22   W 111 278

Probable hyperthermia

138

Victor Daniel Chavez Ramirez

M

30

Unknown

7/3/2012

N 31 96.761   W 112 74.800

Probable hyperthermia

139

Manuel de Jesus Rabago-Perez

M

24

México

7/7/2012

N 32 37.3467   W 111 50.3167

Multiple gunshot wounds

140

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

7/7/2012

N 32 26.679   W 111 36.835

Probable hyperthermia

141

David Lomeli Jauregui

M

42

Unknown

7/9/2012

N 31 97.415   W 110 12.910

Undetermined (decomposed, partially skeletonized remains)

142

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

7/9/2012

N 31 54.768   W 111 56.793

Undetermined (mummified, partially skeletonized remains)

143

Juan Ayala Moroyoqui

M

Unk

México

7/9/2012

7th Street and Tennessee Street

Blunt force injuries of head

144

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

7/10/2012

West of Big Fields Village

Undetermined (mummified, partially skeletonized remains)

145

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

7/10/2012

N 32 17.919   W 111 47.173

Undetermined- skeletal remains

146

Juan Carlos Trejo Labra

M

35

México

7/10/2012

N 31 80.7913   W 111 16.4883

Probable hyperthermia

147

Carlos Martin Garcia Reyna

M

47

México

7/15/2012

N 32 22.468   W 111 42.571

Undetermined (mummified, partially skeletonized remains)

148

Armando Lopez

M

49

Unknown

7/15/2012

100 yards east of Ajo Well Road

Probable hyperthermia

149

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

7/16/2012

N 31 38.331   W 111 38.659

Undetermined (mummified, partially skeletonized remains)

150

Misael Villagomez-Guzman

M

32

Unknown

7/17/2012

N 32 05.779   W 112 94.110

Undetermined (skeletal remains)

151

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

7/19/2012

18280 West McClean Road

Undetermined (mummified, partially skeletonized remains)

152

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

7/20/2012

N 32 03.4433   W 113 24

Undetermined (skeletal remains)

153

Gonzalo Gonzalez Gonzalez

M

46

México

7/21/2012

Southwest of Reservation Road and Manvil Road

Probable hyperthermia

154

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

7/22/2012

I-40 east bound milepost 294.8

Blunt force trauma of the torso

155

Ovilio Perez Ortiz

M

28

Unknown

7/22/2012

I-40 east bound milepost 294.8

Blunt force head trauma

156

Guadalupe Paez Tapia

M

27

México

7/23/2012

N 31 55.379   W 112 22.083

Undetermined- skeletal and mummified remains

157

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

7/23/2012

N 31 35.87   W 111 13.00

Undetermined (skeletal remains)

158

Sergio Ubaldo Garcia Ortega

M

50

Unknown

7/27/2012

N 32 34.235   W 111 47.834

Probable hyperthermia

159

Pedro Torres Martinez

M

19

México

7/29/2012

Federal Route 15, milepost 15

Pending

160

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

7/31/2012

N 31 56.612   W 111 46.096

Undetermined (skeletal remains)

161

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

8/1/2012

8001 West Bucking Horse Road

Undetermined (partial skeletal remains)

162

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

8/2/2012

N 32 06.476   W 111 59.323

Undetermined- skeletal remains

163

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

8/5/2012

N 31 82.17   W 111 06.19

Undetermined (skeletal remains)

164

Bonifacio Tecorral Ahuelican

M

Unk

Unknown

8/6/2012

Kisto Ranch Road

Probable hyperthermia

165

Reyna Gonzalez Lopez

F

38

Unknown

8/7/2012

Unknown

Pending

166

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

8/7/2012

N 31 146.420   W122 121.650

Undetermined (decomposed, partially skeletonized remains)

167

Jaime Pasillas Pasillas

M

42

Unknown

8/11/2012

N 32 20.708   W 111 36.304

Undetermined- mummified remains

168

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

8/15/2012

N 31 61.749   W 111 84.052

Probable hyperthermia

169

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

8/16/2012

N 31 50.919   W 111 55.064

Undetermined (decomposed, partially skeletonized remains)

170

Osvaldo Ortiz Villegas

M

40

México

8/24/2012

N 31 43.785   W 111 57.819

Undetermined

171

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

8/25/2012

N 31 54.440   W 112 07.547

Undetermined due to skeletal remains

172

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

8/28/2012

N 23 01.718   W 11 45.802

Undetermined due to skeletal remains

173

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

9/1/2012

N 31 59.988   W 112 07.216

Probable hyperthermia

174

Unknown

F

Unk

Unknown

9/1/2012

N 31 23.194   W 111 00.780

Undetermined due to skeletal remains

175

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

9/6/2012

Village of Kometiz

Undetermined due to skeletal remains

176

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

9/16/2012

N 32 56.501   W 111 53.706

Undetermined (mummified remains)

177

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

9/29/2012

N 32 32.424   W 111 39.330

Undetermined- skeletal remains

178

Unknown

Unk

Unknown

9/30/2012

N 31 55.114   W 112 03.736

Undetermined- skeletal remains

179

Unknown

M

Unk

Unknown

9/30/2012

N 31 31.88   W 109 19.65

Undetermined

Note: In addition, the Arizona Daily Star has also begun a database of migrant deaths. There are many overlapping details between their numbers and ours, but if you are looking for someone specific and do not see it on our list, you may also want to check the AZ Starnet database. Searches can be done by name, home, age, and date. Here’s the link:

http://reg29ulus.azstarnet.com/borderdeaths/search.php

 

The War in Arizona

by James Jordan, Border Militarization Study Guide Project Coordinator

Southern Arizona has become a war zone….Since 2000, more than 2,100 persons have died crossing the Arizona/Mexican border. Along the entire U.S./Mexico border, according to the Mexican Foreign Ministry, 6,607 undocumented workers have perished since 1994—the year the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) went into effect. Last year, 256 persons died crossing the Arizona borderlands, up 53 over the previous year. This was the highest number in five years and the second highest since 2000. The dead are victims of free trade and neoliberal economic policies that have destroyed rural communities, causing a virtual forced march to the U.S. and maquiladora sweatshops in a hunt for jobs. They are victims of border militarization that funnels undocumented workers into the harshest areas of the desert where death is a constant risk due to exposure and lack of water. And there are other victims as well.  Read more…

 

CALL TO ACTION

 

ONLINE ACTION:

A bipartisan Senate committee and the White House have both put forth immigration reform proposals, finally breaking the silence on this important issue in the halls of government.  However, their proposals have several weaknesses, including the continuance and advancement of border militarization.  It is vital that we let the Senate and the White House know that border militarization kills, and must not be increased as a part of immigration reform.  Rather, border militarization must be brought to an end.

 

Click here to send an email to the White House.

 

Click here to send an email to your Senators.

 

ORGANIZING IN YOUR COMMUNITY:

  • One thing you can do is to organize a class around the Border Militarization Study Guide.  You don’t have to have a lot of knowledge to do this–each lesson comes with educational material, discussions and group exercises.  Best of all, all lessons include action components.  That way, the emphasis is on mobilizing hand in hand with learning.  There’s not a grade, no Pass or Fail, and best of all, the very act of meeting together will foster the development of ongoing efforts to end border militarization.  For more information, send an email to james@afgj.org or call 202-544-9355, ext. 3.

 

 

  • Put together a delegation to visit your Representative’s and Senators’ offices to discuss immigration reform and to demand demilitarization rather than militarization of the border.  Let us know if you get a meeting–send an email to james@afgj.org or call 202-544-9355, ext. 3.

 

DISCUSSION AND GROUP EXERCISES

To participate in the online discussion forum, go to the top right hand corner of the page and click on the “Hello Guest!” tab.

  •  Isabel Garcia makes the point that the US economy is dependent on the services provided by undocumented workers.  She points out that “the two biggest addictions we have in the US are drugs and cheap labor.” She suggests that the reason we criminalize both of them is “to control as well as to make money for the one or two percent”. What does she mean? Do you agree or disagree? CLICK HERE to participate in online discussion of this question.

 

 

  • Will Wickham writes that, “This production of fear and hate makes it possible to police, incarcerate and deport the people who are otherwise our family, friends, neighbors and co-workers…This activity is sometimes most visible on the border, but in reality is playing out across the country….Why are US citizens fearful and hateful of immigrants? Who is actually benefiting from this complex of surveillance, incarceration and deportation?” What kind of examples have you seen in your community? Do you feel more secure?  CLICK HERE to participate in online discussion of this question.

 

  • The US has suffered over 2,140 fatalities in the war in Afghanistan, as of January 2013. In Iraq, the US has suffered 4,486 fatalities. On the US/Mexico border, over 6,000 undocumented workers have lost their lives. Do you think it is correct to characterize the border as a “war zone”? Why or why not?  CLICK HERE to participate in online discussion of this question.

 

FURTHER STUDY AND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

New Release by David Bacon: Displaced, Unequal and Criminalized-Fighting for the Rights of Migrants in the United States

We demand genuine immigration reform – Legalization for all, no guest worker expansion & no more repression! SIGN ON LETTER

Crusising on Military Drive:  ‘Good’ Latinos and ‘Bad’ Latinos in the Age of Homeland Security and Global War by Robert Lovato

Chicago Religious Leadership Network on Latin America:  Immigration Organization Resource List

Website for important new film about the border and immigration, The Undocumented